Making Reuse Real – Standardized Services and Open Source Software


Now turn it over to Dr. Damon Regan. Thank you
Jono. Hopefully my audio sounds clear I’d just like to welcome everyone to this webinar on making you reuse real.
Thank you so much for spending part of your afternoon here on Thursday with me I see this topic is something that… glad to see there is some interest in Today we’ll be talking about some of the standardized services and open source software to try and make this vision of reuse come to life. Again, my name is Damon Regan I’d like to tell you a little about myself for those that may not be familiar with me. Some of my current interests I tend to talk with some of my colleagues here at ADL about various systems and trying to make sure that these systems are able to work together deliver the kind of digital learning we think is possible but I try to always balance that with a focus on usability. I’ve been working in the area of reuse now for several
years and I certainly enjoy it and believe this is an
important area to make efficient and effective learning available at the appropriate costs and development times. I’m very intrigued by
the notion of competency-based education and the ability to learn anywhere and anytime
you know at various rates. I believe some of these notions of reuse have a lot of applicability to enabling some of those potential opportunities to come to light.
My educational background I started life out in a computer science discipline and spent some time trying to work with business and most recently you know focused on a plan of study in instructional technology So just to begin and orient this topic of reuse I believe that there is almost an expectation now in the age of Google and YouTube and various kind of Web 2.0 capabilities where
content is almost expected to be available and the responsible reuse of learning content it’s expected that it should be easy for learners
and content developers to be able to reuse. This helps realize the ADL vision in large part of enabling access to content anywhere anytime and ideally tailoring it to
the individual needs cost-effectively in the sense of lowering development time and costs. This is essentially the expectations and requirements that I believe orient this notion of reuse. So moving on to the vision of what I believe is possible for reuse For the purpose of content development where users may want to be able to repurpose
existing content, I believe there is a kind of virtuous cycle that begins with this one-stop shopping capability
to find the best of what’s available and be able to preview that content to be able to make smart decisions about its potential applicability to current development efforts and then access that content either openly
because you know it’s openly available or mediated through some type of identification card to make that access as quick and straight-forward as possible ultimately allowing a content developer to use the tool of their choice with those
source materials to make changes to it assuming that the licenses are supportive of that and then after making those changes be able to
go through a very straight-forward upload process to share those contributions back with their colleagues that may exist in other departments or organizational units I kinda liken that upload process of being fast and easy to the experience I’ve seen uploading videos to a site like YouTube. Ultimately, you know that’s where this virtual cycle starts is with that first upload activity. But again this is kind of what I’m characterizing as the vision for content
developers. I think there is a similar vision of this virtuous cycle for learners themselves where they also start you know with the notion of finding [through] kind of a one-stop shopping experience the best of what’s available and be able to preview that content to make the right selections especially in this case of learners where they’re kind of you know thinking about what the next logical activity might be for them as a self-directed or self-regulated learner. In the
future we can imagine software that is able to broker in when we talk about the Training and Learning Architecture software can have this kind of brokering capability to select the
next logical activity I think that is kind of similar to this notion of finding the best of what’s available again you know being able to access that content wanted once a selection is made and either through openly or through ID cards and then ideally being able to again given this learner vision that self-directed learner who maybe finds this content can find that this best content is able
respond to that specific user maybe their again this is where the tailoring of the content might come from their profile to exactly what they need and to the type of device that they might have in terms of mobile vs. desktop and so forth and once accessing that content some of the other capability of the ADL Training and Learning Architecture that we’re working on such as the Experience API allowing for that learner to get credit for looking at that content or completing some set of activities ultimately you know that credit can extend to populating their learner profile or e-portfolio accumulating various badges that they can take on to other experiences and then again that may create a cycle in the next logical
selection by themselves or by a piece of content brokering software so to realize this vision I’d now like to transition to talk about some of the open source software and standardized services that are necessary to create the sort of environment that I believe will realize this vision I think there is activities going on that I’d like to review about these standardized services and open source software today. So just to start the standardized services I believe can be broken up into essentially services that enable system better interested in this business of reuse to integrate with one another which we might say vertically in the sense of various repositories or registries that are operating at different
scales or different organizational units to create kind of local and global infrastructure and at the same time there is perhaps a different
dimension of being able to integrate horizontally with other software that may not be you know specifically focused on reuse but benefit from being able to reuse this content and have it be accessible through these kind of standardized services like recommendation engines or authoring tools and I believe that these are likely integrations likely to be critical for making these systems usable. And when I say standardardized services I really mean these kind of web services that many of our… the web applications we use today depend on in order to create
interactions with other kind of web applications this way of interacting infrastructure together I believe is a required area for realizing this vision of reuse and on the other side of this coin is open source software that in many cases is required in many cases to provide initial implementations of these standardized services that allow for this kind of integration potential and by being open source I believe this helps encourage interoperability through those service kind of definitions and kind of ameliorate some of the issues associated with interoperability and in general having these services with potential open source baselines can help avoid fragmentation while at the same time enabling commercial innovation to
provide alternative systems for those interfaces enabling them to exist and grow through permissive licenses and I believe these open source software also can help
proliferate the infrastructure to make it visible and make it exist at the various organizational levels that it likely needs to be able to exist at and key to this open source software being
able to be proliferated is that it is fast and easy to setup and begin using and like I said, be able to support different organizational scopes that may have different needs or requirements for how that software operates or functions. So now I’d like to refer to a couple registry projects that provide standardized services and open source
software. The role of registries I believe fits into this set of systems that are supporting e-learning infrastructure from the LMS, the popular aspect in this ecosystem that’s focused on delivery. Perhaps learning content management
systems or LCMSs are another popular term but I characterize the purpose of these systems as centralizing authoring repositories which I’ll talk about in a moment I believe focus on content management but the registry is focused on this very kind of the one-stop shopping
experience discovering the best of what’s available. So just returning for a moment to the the reuse vision
again here for developers that ability to find the best of what’s available through this kind of one stop shopping experience and preview that through thumbnails or other types of preview interactions I believe that this is the role that the registries play. Similarly for learners again that self-directed learner or a piece of software that needs to find the best of what’s available to identify the next logical activity, I believe these registries are a critical infrastructure. So now I’d just like to tell you about one such sort of registry project that ADL has collaborated and if I toggle my screen hopefully your able to see kind of my web browser here I have pointed to free.ed.gov. This is a website where ADL
collaborated with the Department of Education to provide a number of educational
resources from many different places just kind of demonstrates this idea of a registry
potential There is the ability to browse through content by various standards, subject areas, or just kind of a search experience Here if I search for fractions we can look across you know a wide variety of different publishers and providers of resource that may have content that addresses this particular topic So this is one such example of How this kind of registry may provide a discovery potential and what makes this particular you know
registry possible is a project called the learning registry, which is not necessarily a website like the one I just showed you, rather that free.ed.gov I have hear in the upper left is just one application that can interact with this network you know
various content publishers can interact with this and share the best of what they have to offer as far as what content is available… various states can use this and also I have listed here an Army registry for the US Army in the Department of Defense These various system can all interact with
this common learning registry network to share these metadata records that describe educational resources But it’s not just metadata again metadata being kind of structured metadata describing what the educational resource is the title, description, and so forth there is this notion of paradata that the learning registry is extending to try and collect how various resources are being used in
context These kind of paradata messages are based on this activity streams specification, so if you’ve heard other ADL webinars, as part of the Training and Learning Architecture such as the Experience API, it also is using the activity streams specification, which involves this kind of actor, verb, object structure and so an example to try and provide more context associated with a particular educational
resource the learning registry might know about is this statement here where an actor of a particular type of teacher may match or align a particular educational
standard or objective as a verb with a particular piece of content… with a particular educational
resource. And as these different statements are
collected from the various websites or portals that interact with this learning registry network a shared and accessible timeline of metadata and this various paradata can come together and allow information
that’s created in one community to be learned, extended, and you know reprocessed by another and so forth and as I have in this timeline various other service providers can also interact with that
network to provide additional added value processes or software. So that is the learning registry project I have a link both to the slides as
well as some of these different projects on a
web page that hopefully that URL is being shared. I also have a link to that on my final slide here. But, I want to tell you about another registry project. This is the US Army registry I mentioned earlier. This is the Central Army Registry or CAR providing both search and browse interfaces to a wide variety of resources that… educational resources that the US Army has collected and this is very much
the same sort of discovery potential that’s offered by this registry. So I think this is a great example And this also provides and demonstrates the different organizational needs that different systems need to operate under. In this case, the army registry which provides both a CAC or common access card essentially one of these mediated ID cards to access particular resources in the site, but it also provides a public access which I’m showing a screenshot of here to be able
to search for the public access resources better available through the same system. And we’ve begun a proof of concept which is proving to work of integrating some of the learning registry network metadata and paradata with the Central Army Registry metadata. So we are sharing some of this public
data between the two systems again providing kinda greater one-stop shopping capabilities by exchanging this kind of
public data again through these standard services that each provides So I’d now like to talk about a couple of repository projects This is a different class of systems completely that I believe are also critical to realizing the vision of reuse. Again, just kinda turning to this set of ecosystems.. set of systems that operate in this ecosystem. Here I’ve highlighted the role that I believe repositories play where they you know make it possible to manage content over time in terms of easily uploading, downloading, and finding and other workflows that focus just on this management of the content as opposed to delivering it or authoring it And just looking at the role where repositories play back to this the vision of reuse for developers I believe repositories play a critical role in terms of
facilitating you know essentially finding the content again maybe through an integration with a registry being able to access that content and enforcing the correct rules associated with who should have access to it and then be able to repurpose that content as far as being able to download the content and use the tools that are necessary Ideally the repository is able to keep track of the source materials to support effective repurposing and then make it
as easy as possible for contributors to upload content to that repository and I believe that upload is a key kinda aspect of this repository system to realize this vision and again create this cycle by making that available for someone else to find and potentially reuse and similarly for learners, I believe the notion of a repository or some kind of
dashboard that’s similar to a repository can be used to help a learner, perhaps a self-directed learner find the next logical activity that they are looking for or a piece of software that may be in the… have the functional role of identifying that next logical activity, being able to access that and then enable a learner to use it and learn from it again, ideally the content is able to be responsive to the user and their device and provide the ability to get credit for that One of the repositories going back to the developers
use case… those content developers creating content with 3d models that might be involved in virtual environments, games, or simulations ADL, a few years back, created this exemplar open source repository called the 3D repository and this project manages and makes it easy to upload and download various 3d models and provides some value-added services for those 3D models And it also integrates with other 3d model repositories as well as the learning registry network I mentioned earlier through standard services that make that kind of integration possible Another repository project that’s also open source and this one is a little bit newer that ADL has created it’s called the Re-Usability Support System for E-Learning or RUSSEL and this grew out of the work with the 3D Repository in terms of looking at the value of having an open source repository project that ideally is fast and easy to get started with and allow various uses through permissive licenses to setup and run, while embedding various standardized services The 3D Repository did many of those things But, it was optimized for 3D models RUSSEL was a project that came out of it would be nice if there was a way to manage in a similar manner various e-learning materials beyond just 3D models and it is part of the value-added services
for those e-learning materials RUSSEL, through being able to upload/download content also provided the ability to essentially create a remixing tool so in this interface this remixing tool essentially provided the ability to incorporate instructional design best practices or reuse best practices and facilitate ideally these workflows where a user is able to select a new project and be offered a choice of instructional design strategies RUSSEL is intended to be extended so an organization can add the strategies that they would like to use to begin searching for additional content that might be used to create some new content that’s based on a grounded strategy ideally through empirical research or theory this is just kind of one historical instructional strategy, Gagne’s 9 events, this is a teacher-directed but of course we could also have learner-directed or centered rather strategies and at each one of the various instructional events in that strategy. gaining attention, presenting content, providing feedback, so here we have highlighted the provide feedback event and various notes are provided
here about you know the kinda things that might be
important to emphasize for content that might be supporting this instructional event and in a… while providing this kind of guidance it also provides the [ability for the] user to search for content and various assets that may be used to support this particular instructional event and then add notes that could be used to communicate to a developer how certain content may be repurposed to
best support that instructional event That’s the concept of what we’re calling an Electronic Performance Support System for kind of remixing content together with instructional design best practices and reuse best practices. The result of this you know, by going through these various events may be chosen or selected populating with this content and various
developer notes the tool allows the user to export out essentially a bare-bones SCORM package that has SCOs for these various events with the content associated that’s been kind of remixed here suggested in that
package that would ideally be given to a developer to use the tools that they believe are the best of breed tool to use to then you know look at those notes that are included
in the context of each event and ultimately have a good kinda starting point for creating new content through that repurposing exercise Just looking back at some of the various repositories and registries here I’m just mentioning some of the ones that we’ve worked with at ADL, of course there are others emerging and that is great to see, the fact that these exist I believe is critical to the realization of this reuse vision It is interesting as I talk with my colleagues
here at ADL that most of these current registry systems
tend to focus on that learner vision of reuse and don’t necessarily point to repositories that are supporting kind of repurposing or content
development vision, while on the other hand repositories tend to focus on this developer vision but don’t necessarily provide access to content that enable learners to get credit in terms of realizing this vision of pulling content out of learning management systems and making it available to learners who may be using a mobile device or going through competency-based programs accessing it through their own self-directed means but I believe those are easy things to to tie up as these repositories and registries continue to evolve So why do I believe that reuse is more real now. Well I believe that leading indicators for e-learning reuse are some of the just software reuse and various libraries, the way they reuse materials for a library if you, as I did look back at kind of the news, blogs, articles about software reuse I mean, in the past 5 or 10 years there were many kind of doom
and gloom perspectives on reuse that it just wasn’t possible with software, that software reuse efforts were a failure and wouldn’t be possible but I believe, you know new
infrastructure such as github that many software developers are likely becoming familiar with are now starting to share their source code through this system that essentially optimized to make that sharing of source code very easy and effective and similarly, I believe the library community has been sharing you know scholarly documents, articles, and such through institutional repositories and I believe that effort has been transformed by Google Scholar where in this kind of one-stop shopping you preview and get potential access through using library ID cards allows users to go straight to Google and discover the best of what’s available potentially pointing to different libraries I believe e-learning is coming next in the sense of how this technology can come and shape you know the reuse of these various e-learning materials that are available as e-learning continues to grow in importance and change in the way that we see it coming to… and you know to evolve and part of the reason I believe this is the partnerships that I see the services that I’ve seen working together on the various departments you know between US
government agencies just the interest that I see of developers and project managers that have a desire to share with their colleagues and make smarter use of the resources that they have and extract the value from
them and there is a fiscal need of course in our current climate to ensure
that we’re using resources as wisely as possible and I believe reuse is you know one important thing to extract more value out
of our existing resources and the rise of open-source and potentially open content, more awareness
of the licenses of how content is procured… provide the
opportunity to use that in more places, of course, responsibly without breaking either distribution restrictions or licensing restrictions I also believe that e-learning is next because mobile learning is growing and pushing new demands on how that content is made available by various systems… the traditional systems for delivering content you know may not in you know prescribed orders or in particular systems may not be sufficient so I believe mobile learning is forcing us to think about how best to position
content and keep it up-to-date and available in new ways I’d like to kind of wrap-up some of my remarks here with some observations that I’ve seen here as I’ve worked in this space for the past several years I believe that systems should be scalable in the sense of being able to be federated able to work as local and global infrastructure but at the end of the day these scalable efforts should always ensure that systems are fast
and easy to setup and use the simple system of one system should be possible to get up and running quickly without creating an elaborate architecture that
gets in the way of that initial setup and use. The second observation is that I believe that these systems should understand content that they were made for as talk about that 3d repository I believe it was able to provide good value for 3D models because it understood those 3D models It had various parsing algorithms that could extract the value, to do transformations of those 3D models I believe this kind of optimization for the content that the system understands is critical I had this example of sharing source code through this github system I mentioned earlier probably makes more sense than if you talk
to software developers in sharing source code through SharePoint
as another system that might be used for sharing. And similarly, the converse, sharing office documents through SharePoint probably makes more sense than sharing office documents through GitHub Different systems are optimized for the sharing the type of content that they are suited for I also believe that various systems supporting reuse should support both humans and machines in the sense that good usability for humans Ideally that’s able to be iterated over time as well as machines through these standardized
services or web services that allow for this integration with different infrastructure and looking at
the human role that the systems need to support As I’ve mentioned with the different visions for learners and content developers I believe each of these should be looked
at as we continue to innovate in this area and the different needs that each has in the case of learners, for final media, things that they can play and use and learn from that embed the ability to provide credit for the experiences they are doing and spending time with and content developers they need the source materials in order to make the changes quickly and effectively that are being sought. I believe that systems need to associate content whether we’re talking about instructional activities or assessments with various objectives or educational standards or competency definitions I believe this is a tenant of instructional design
that these things are in alignment and repository and registry or other infrastructure that are going to support this reuse vision I think always need to preserve and encourage this kind of alignment. Metadata is a common topic when we talk
about repositories, registries, and reuse. One observation I’ve come to over the years looking at this space is that the requirements for metadata should be
minimal during the upload processes so when that initial
kinda contribution is taking place for a piece of content I believe that upload mechanism needs to not have so many requirements that it potentially
could make that upload not successful. Some of the requirements that I believe have shown use in the various displays of… in terms registries or repositories for previewing and for understanding, of course great snapshots and preview potentials, are something that the systems are able to do by being optimized for the type of content they have but the types of metadata they might need are things like title, descriptions, knowing things about who.. where that piece of.. resource came from… who was the author curator, potentially the publisher, who has rights to that resource or how is it limited in terms of
distribution and finally again for that previous statement about alignment to various objectives or you know standards or
competencies I believe that those are critical aspects of metadata that seem to be useful and the fact that how those are described or encoded in spite of many metadata discussions about various schemas or approaches I’m sure that many of those things are important and it’s generally good to be using schemas that others are using but in general the systems you know are probably going to be able to figure out as long as we’re using some kind of popular schema, so I think there should be
some flexibility of exactly which schema is used for particular content as long as it is something popular to avoid fragmentation. I also just wanted to provide some connections to the Training and Learning Architecture. This is
something that if you look at ADLnet.gov/webinars the past webinars that addressed the Training and Learning Architecture in particular. I encourage you to go look at those on demand webinars and stay tuned to our newsletter for future webinars that I’m sure are going to continue to address this topic. What I’ve shown here kinda are some of my conceptions of how I believe these systems of registries and repositories
supporting these visions of reuse help realize some of the Training and Learning Architecture’s visions of content brokering and how it is
situated with respect to the the Experience API so I’m looking at the bottom left circle of activities the ability to track that those activities provide credit for learners in terms of using the Experience API or xAPI specification to say what learners are doing with that content you know have they completed it, again that’s the topic of a whole other webinar, but how they get credit for that interaction with that activity, that get’s stored in what’s called a Learning Record Store when using the Experience API and those various learning records could be examined to aggregate different users who are using the same activities kind of going up to do that upper right hand
corner the registry through again what we call in the learning registry we call paradata that aggregated use of a particular resource if
everybody is using the same resource you know in a similar way it would probably be useful for registry system to know about that when it is sharing information about
that resource you know with other learners or searchers, content developers, or potential systems Kind of going back around to this publish and
harvest from ideally repositories and registries those could be one and the same system or merged together home, but I believe they need standard interfaces to allow different repositories to publish to and harvest from global registry infrastructure and ultimately the repositories should make it
possible to do you know download or use those various available activities and potentially even upload activities as far as user generated content to these repositories that could be collected and ultimately, how this fits back into content brokering discussion I believe is right here in the center, identification of what activity should come next ideally if it’s an algorithm or some kind of complicated thought that ought to be evolving overtime by many potential pieces of software but using some of these standardized services that make it possible to know what are all the various objectives that are possible what are
the objectives or standards or competencies that are just available what are the different targets that are possible what are the
profiles you know what the specific profile of the learner in terms of what objectives are they seeking right now and then being able to find that in terms of the
registries or repositories… what do they know about this particular objective and then the content that might be available to best serve that next learning experience So in conclusion and wrapping up I believe going back to that first slide there’s an expectation in our current environment where we are here in 2013 that we
should be able to responsibly reuse the learning content easily both for the learner visions and the content developers I believe the content developer vision is perhaps harder because it requires access to the source material that needs to be procured when it is created and then shared and stored – effectively and the systems that ideally do this as I said earlier, need to support both users and other machines that are going to be working with this content. And I believe the time is right as I’ve said before, the or leading communities that, I think we can you know observe for e-learning infrastructure are moving you know, and transforming you and the ingredients are right to see this transformation in e-learning so I have a page here of resources things that I’ve mentioned here today, if you go to this URL those should be available that page slash webinars you know, don’t
remember this specific webinar just remember ADLnet.gov slash webinars, should get you to a page that shows you a list of all the webinars including this one some of those other past ones make the
on-demand videos of previous webinars available as well. I believe we have left some time hopefully for some questions. I hope this has been useful to you and I look forward to speaking with those of you who would like to carry on the discussion. Thank you. Thank you Damon, I have a few questions cued up. and it looks like we are still getting some others in so I’ll go ahead and…I’ve actually
taken some that are similar and tried to combine them into a question where you might be able just to comment on topics: in a little bit more detail instead of addressing
very specific question so one of the things that was re-occurring through a lot of questions was IT and security handling and some of the questions were specific about you know how are you handling that in some of these cases, but I thought maybe
you could just comment on the idea of IT security within
these systems Sure. And I believe that this is an ongoing
conversation that needs to take place between the various stakeholders that are interested in sharing these kind of resources and making sure that we do it responsibly and ethically, legally with regards to those other team members or colleagues that are in the operations of information technology and you know ensuring security. One thing I’ve noticed and perhaps we can look onto our Army colleagues and that Central Army Registry for some lessons learned and I’ll continue to do that, perhaps that could be a topic for a future
webinar but you know I think going
through deliberate processes to separate out what is the information
that needs to be you know, protected under different id cards or security solutions and what is the content
that needs to be or could be publicly available at
different levels and setting up these different sort of interface points I believe that’s a useful approach and I’m very glad to see that the US Army is pointing to a way forward of doing that and hopefully different content owners
or producers will follow those same kind of procedures working with the necessary contracting, security folks, hopefully this is just an ongoing conversation I don’t think there is any easy answer, but you know, we are seeing infrustructure developing to support this and we are seeing you know, leading content owners beginning to work through these IT security challenges. I hope that addresses the question – it certainly deserves additional discussion and hopefully other experts can weigh in on that That helps, thank you Damon. Ok a second question and this is around the slide you have that shows the different components in an e-learning reusability ecosystem, the LMS, the LCMS, the repository, and our registry and we had a few questions about LCMSs is there a repository or registry built
into LCMSs and what is the distinction that causes it to be broken out into
separate systems Sure, this is a great question they’re very much related to one another. They’re both supporting the vision of reuse. In terms of making sure we are making better use, and some organizations are able to use LCMSs I think for a lot of these same visions of content management and repositories that I’ve
been referring to here And I believe I separate the two out because in these early days of reuse, that I believe we’re in now it’s important to have systems that
support the reuse of essentially content packages or the media assets, rather than very detailed systems that focus on understanding every piece and part of how that original asset was put together Both approaches are useful and I believe the LCMS is involved in how that content is originally put together to be able to realize some of its reuse benefits, but for large organizations that may have a very different development approaches I believe a repository can be useful to allow those different authoring approaches to make it easy to upload, simply have the role of uploading, finding and downloading those various assets and you know, content packages. So, I hope that provides some of the reasons why I break out the two they are very much related and again another topic I would be very happy to talk about further Great answer, thanks Damon. There’s a question that we had just come in that’s about the slides you had that talked about I can’t remember if it was one slide, but it talked about the link beween the learning registry and an LRS and it says can you please clarify the relationship between the learning registry and an LRS Sure, and maybe I’ll ask you to comment as well Jono as you’re an expert on the learning
record store but you know certainly an LR and an LRS are confusing right, I mean, they have pretty similar letters and the acronyms but maybe I’ll comment on my understanding of the registry and how it relates to LRS and maybe
Jono, you could do the same for the LRS back to your perception of the registry but the registry knows about metadata know s about this paradata notion, and essentially URLs that are described by metadata and paradata so the learning regsitry and registry systems I believe know about the content and inventory that content and the metadata that describes them where as a learning record store has statements or activities about how people are using content, or just engaging in different activities, whether it may be independent of content I believe a learning record store is more about how users are actively using content on an individual kind of level. You know, I did this. Where as the registry is really focused on the actual educational resources or content that’s available. Jono, maybe you could provide your thoughts? Sure we’ve actually had a couple of
questions come in they’re coming in pretty quick so I hope I don’t miss any but but we’ve had some that actually tack on to
this question a little bit so all go into a little bit into those also. I guess my
perspective is that a learning record store
LRS the entity that you are describing
with these statements as you mentioned Damon, is the learner its the person experiencing the
content and that’s in most cases because it could
in some cases be an instructor or some other roles, but
really for the purposes of this answer if you think about
it as a person or the learner, so as you mentioned Jonathan completed information
assurance 101 now the learning registry , the LR, the entity that the statement in the
learning registry are about are about content so you’re not
describing what a person did you’re describing information about any online learning course or a website or a video that’s online so the
relationship on this connections to the TLA
slide you can imagine that your LRS collect
many many statements about many many users who are
experiencing information assurance 101, since we all love that course so much and that LRS has potentially thousands a statement
about number one learners that completed that
course but maybe also other information about
whether they liked the course or comments on that course so you can imagine then the line that
goes from the LRS to the registry is a compilation of all
those individual thousands and thousands of statements into paradata that describes a learning
resource so for example instead it of John completed
information assurance 101, 1025 people completed this course. The general rating is four stars The types of people to complete this
course are professional education – uh education and
not K through 12 so you’re really taking the core entity from a
learner in the LRS and moving it up to the
registry compiling it into information that describes content and then just one more thing to add based on a question that came in, we had just a question – actually several on – okay this LRS thing is new to me um what makes LRS different than an LMS and this description can take a long time
so I’ll give you the brief answer but also Damon mentioned that ADLnet.gov slash webinars link on that page you’ll see all our previous
webinars and there are several on the experience API – xAPI , I’d recommend checking out the slides and the videos
from those older webinars they go into more detail about and LRS, but in
brief, many LMSes are implementing LRSes so we’re seeing LRSs as a component of an LMS and what makes them
different because you could have an LRS separate from an LMS, is that an LMS has a very simple function it tracks experience API statements and then it will return them to you if
you are authorized and you ask for them. An LMS they track learning records like scorers
and completion and pass/fail but it also contains content and it contains a
player that can actually play the content and it contains sequencing
code and a menuing system and an LRS doesn’t
have to contain any of that it’s just a data store that’s responsible
for storing data and giving it back to you so you can see how an LRS fits into an LMS as the data storage component, but what we’re seeing with the experience API
is that some people are actually creating LRS outside of an LMS and building reporting
systems on top of them or assessment systems on top of them so they’re not even going the path of the LMS, they’re using it an entirely different way then an LMS would use that data so as
creating as we’re creating the experience API we thought, using the term LMS wasn’t fair because this is much smaller in scope number one and number two that would
would prohibit some of those use cases like the stand alone LRS attached to a recording system. So, I hope that helps and I think we made have touched on all the questions at that point Damon. Let me just double check. I see a few blank lines, but I think they were all related so we go to them so I guess Dr. Regan’s contact information
is up there again there’s the link to get the slides Thank you Damon for this great presentation. We’ve had a lot of very positive comments about the topic and some of the issues that
you addressed If you are interested in more details, please hit adlnet.gov and look at this webinar site
remember that our next webinar is Thursday August 22nd at two Eastern Time and that will be Mr. Jason Haag on moble learning and have a good day

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